介绍一下阿联酋的离岸公司(Offshore Company)

文/阿萨雷律师事务所 尚律师

读者朋友,你们好!

今天我们的法律小栏目首次和大家见面了。我是阿萨雷律师事务所(Azhari Legal Consultancy)的尚律师。希望通过我们的专栏,您能多增加一些阿联酋的法律知识,更好的维护自己的权益。同时也希望通过我们的小小努力,开阔您的眼界,为您在阿联酋寂寞的生活增添一份小小的乐趣。

言归正传,相比责任有限公司(LLC)和其他常见的公司形式,离岸公司(Offshore Company)并不为大家所熟悉。这种投资少,设立程序简单的公司形式往往被绝大多数投资者所忽略或者有一定的误解。所以,今天我想首先为大家介绍一下离岸公司。
 

什么是离岸公司
离岸公司对很多人来说可能还很陌生。其实早在2003年Jebel Ali自由区政府就通过了相关离岸公司的法律,法规。2006年,Ras Al Khaima自由区也出台了相应的规定。自此,投资者可以在两个自由区内设立离岸公司,享受一系列的优惠政策。

那么,离岸公司到底是什么样的一种公司形式呢?和其他形式的公司相比,离岸公司最大的特点是,它是一种非实体性的公司。也就是说,在自由区设立的离岸公司不允许有办公地点,也不允许雇佣员工。

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相关离岸公司的法律规定
两个自由区的法律都规定,自然人和法人都可以设立离岸公司。公司入股人数最少一人,对最低注册资金没有具体的要求。在Jebel Ali设立离岸公司需要两个经理,一个秘书。在Ras Al Khaima只须一个经理,一个秘书。每年公司至少要开一次年会(不一定要在迪拜举行),进行一次公司财务审计(非强制性条款)。
和普通的公司相比,离岸公司不能和阿联酋境内居住的人进行贸易活动; 不能在银行,保险等行业进行相关的商业活动; 不能进行法律法规禁止的商业活动; 公司名称内必须显示”责任有限”的字样。还要指出的是,设立离岸公司是不能得到居留签证的。
法律还规定,离岸公司的注册必须通过拥有执照的注册代理机构来进行。

离岸公司的优点
设立离岸公司最显著的优点就是简单,快捷。如所需的文件齐全,在Ras Al Khaima注册一个离岸公司一般只要2到3个工作日,而且投资者本人甚至不用亲自来阿联酋。他只要将相关的文件邮寄给注册代理机构就行了。

其次,离岸公司的运营成本很低。因为不需要租借办公地点,无需雇员,没有最低注册资金,设立一个离岸公司只要很少的投资。在阿联酋,像所有的公司一样,离岸公司的收益完全免税。

离岸公司的资产受高度的法律保护。投资人只承担有限的法律责任。更值得一提的是,离岸公司实行匿名制,投资人的详细信息不对外部公众公开。外国人可以100%拥有公司。公司可以在阿联酋开设银行账户,资金可以自由流通,在全球进行贸易活动。

在某些特定的情况下,许多外国人想尽量避免阿联酋当地法律对自身法律关系的适用。通过设立离岸公司可以很好的达到这个目的。

让我们举个简单的例子:一个外国投资者希望在迪拜购买一处不动产,并希望自己的妻子继承这处不动产。关于不动产的继承问题,阿联酋的法律规定前后并不一致。法律一方面规定,外国人可以自己立遗嘱决定不动产由谁继承。与此同时,法律也规定,不动产所在地的法律适用于继承关系。如果不动产所在地的法律,也就是阿联酋法律,在此处适用(在大部分情况下也是这样的),那么投资人的妻子就有可能得不到该不动产的全部继承权。因为,在遗产继承问题上,阿联酋遵循的是伊斯兰宗教法(sharia Law)。根据伊斯兰宗教法的条款,被继承人在他的遗嘱中只能支配自己1/3的所有财产,剩余的部分要根据伊斯兰宗教法的条款进行分配。

为了避免上述情况的发生,这个外国投资者和他的配偶可以共同设立一个离岸公司并各自拥有公司50%的股份。在公司的章程中可以规定,一方死亡后另一方获得公司另外50%的股份。然后,他们可以用公司的名义购买该处不动产。当一方死亡时,另外一方根据公司的章程获得公司100%的股份,也就间接的拥有了该处不动产。因为在整个过程中只是公司股份的内部分配,并不涉及到遗产分配及不动产的转移问题,所以伊斯兰宗教法并不适用。通过这个方法,投资人死后,他的妻子就100%的拥有了该处不动产。

希望通过上面的介绍,您对离岸公司有了一个大概的认识。如果您想对离岸公司进行更深入的了解,请您联系我们。作为获得自由区政府批准的专业的注册代理机构,我们的律师事务所将会为您在设立离岸公司的过程中提供高质量,全方位的服务。

阿萨雷律师事务所(Azhari Legal Consultancy),尚律师Cell-Phone:0561598766,QQ:664088398,Email: hai@azhari-law.com

(免责声明:以上文字旨在为广大读者提供更多的法律信息,普及法律知识,只能作为参考,不能取代在个案中专业律师的咨询。未经同意,不得转载!)

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